Final Exam Jeopardy! game Review (converted to pdf)
Final C2C paper template.
Exam Study Guide: All of this can also be found on Canvas.
LECTURE, Pot Luck
- Public Sphere & Spiral of Silence
- Metaphor & Metonymy
- Richard Dreyfuss (reason, logic, clarity, dissent, civility, debate—the non-partisan bases for democracy)
- Jon Stewart on “hurting America” (Crossfire video)
- The Rhetorical Situation (window of opportunity)
- The Rhetorical Presidency
- The Game (in class)
- Fight v. Flight AND Bond or Befriend (human reactions to stress)
- Blog Challenges
- Every political question is, at base, a question of freedom and order (4)
- Page 6 diagram
- Major contemporary arguments: military defense, government surveillance, academic freedom, welfare programs, and taxes (7-10)
- Ideology defined (14)
- The American Ideology (17)
- Hypodermic Needle Theory: “the media ‘inject’ intellectual substances into a person’s brain, with corresponding (usually negative) effects.” 
- Perceiving bias where none exists (36)
- Hahn’s “real media biases” (38-48: what makes money, the visual, the contemporary & the immediate, the status quo, the assumptions of American society, fairness & balance, bad news, certain ways of covering stories)
- Defining definition (54)
- FOUR Functions of definition: IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEM, SPECIFYING THE APPROPRIATE ACTORS, TO FOCUS/LIMIT DEBATE, TO ELIMINATE DEBATE COMPLETELY. (56)
- Also control the societal dialogue; highlight some aspects while obscuring others;
- Slavery as a 19th century definitional battle—slavery as a moral wrong v. slavery as an economic necessity.
- The definition of the question carries with it the function of identifying whether the government should be involved. North said it should, South said it shouldn’t.
- Naming (as opposed to defining—where the rhetor engaged in definition is simultaneously offering to debate) is when those who only provide names often mask or deny the fact that they are involved in a definitional process. (55)
- Example: “Clinton’s proposal was socialistic” is an assertion, opening for debate, definitional. “Clinton’s socialistic proposal”is a description, a naming, closing off debate. (55)
- The best way to predict revolutions (70)
ཉ Defining form [v. content—what was said] as “the artistic way in which a rhetor couches his/her arguments, how words are combined, how the speaker delivers the speech, etc.” (73 and 76)
- Reagan’s favorite metaphor: the path (79)
- Synecdoche (75, Reagan’s most characteristic device) (76, George W. Bush with Texas governor as part to whole presidential office in 2000 campaign).
- Identification (77) “important job of the leader is to persuade the citizens that the leader identifies with their interests and thus it is in the citizens’ interest to identify with the leader.”
- Honesty (84), Grandeur (85), and Ideological Correctness (88) as in “minor preliminary work on sloganeering seems to indicate political differences in rhetorical form”—liberals and conservatives may differ on the forms they choose.
- Lots of political “lies” are not lies at all: 1. rather, they are language choices with which we disagree; 2. rather, they are simplifications that are are in a position to recognize—and see as oversimplifications; 3. rather, they are policies based on generalizations, or abstractions that look like lies because we read different policies into them during the campaign; rather, they are PRAGMATIC language or LANGUAGE THAT IS USED “in order to bring about its truth.” (94-95)
- Euphemisms (96) and “dysphemisms” [see “dyseuphemisms on page 98]
- Generalizations “the method of looking at specific instances and arriving at a more widely applicable general rule.” (104)
- ALSO SEE PPT, chapters 5-7 (linked here)
- The Binary Discourse System (138)
- Effects on Women (145) and Effects on Men (151)
- The Marriage Metaphor (163)
- Presidential Divorce (178)
- The Continuing Use of the Metaphor (181)
- ALSO “fair game” for final: All five Quizzes from this quarter are listed here. Most is already noted above, but I added them just in case.
CMST 301 Q1 Fall 2014
1-8: Fill out Ideology Matrix from page 6.
9-10. FILL IN: FOR BOTH IDEOLOGIES, ______________ are MORE IMPORTANT THAN ___________.
CMST 301 Q2 Fall 2014
- Give an example of DEFINITION.
- Give an example of NAMING.
- Identify FIVE (5) REAL media biases—with examples for each.
CMST 301 Q3 Fall 2014
- How the elements are combined, put together, the pattern, the style of presentation, delivery = ___________________.
- President Ronald Reagan’s “characteristic way of thinking” was in _____________________ (also known as the most common form of Metonymy).
- Identify Aristotle’s THREE FORMS OF SPEECHES: ____________ _____________ ____________
- If you know the metaphors with which people describe a problem, you may be able to predict the nature of their solution even before they figure it out (121). Kenneth Burke calls this ______________________ _________________________.
- All myths discussed in the textbook (Parentian, Edelman, etc.) encourage __________________ and __________________ in the electorate (129).
- The development of a ___________ ____________ __________ is inevitable in a gender-controlled system.
- This theory[___________ ___ _________] demonstrates why people are unwilling to express their opinions (publicly) when they believe they have the minority opinion.
- In the “Marriage Metaphor” of Presidential politics, the President “marries” ________________.
- These are the two alternative responses to threat/predators (beyond fight or flight): ___________________ and ___________________.
- Identify the three elements of Lloyd Bitzer’s RHETORICAL SITUATION: _________________, _________________, and ________________.
- BONUS: HOW IS A RHETORICAL AUDIENCE DIFFERENT FROM A NON-RHETORICAL AUDIENCE IN BITZER’S THEORY?
- Endangering the free marketplace of ideas;
- Impairing democratic decision-making;
- Interfering with the right to cast an informed vote;
- Letting the government determine the relationship between itself and citizens;
- Holding citizens and their rights in contempt;
- Keeping citizens ignorant;
- “Chilling” our willingness to engage in the activities of citizenship, and
- Destroying our trust in the government.
- Give an example of ONE of the above and demonstrate the “negative effect on political discourse—and societal dialogue” that resulted.