synonyms for propaganda
- SPIN and “…lies, distortion, deceit, manipulation, mind control, psychological warfare, brainwashing, and palaver.”
what is propaganda?
It is a public action or display of doctrines, ideas, arguments, facts or allegations spread by deliberate effort through any medium of communication in order to influence others, to further one's cause or to damage an opposing cause. In its Latin derivation, the word means “to propagate” or “to sow.”
brief history of propaganda
Propaganda has been used throughout human history from the time of Alexander the Great and the Roman Empire to the Reformation. When the printing press was invented in the mid-15th century, it became a powerful tool for the distribution of propaganda.
As new mass media were developed, they too were adopted as the propaganda machine became increasingly sophisticated. Propaganda continued to play a major role in shaping the outcome of wars and revolutions from the 18th century to the present day.
shades of propaganda
White propaganda generally comes from an openly identified source, and is characterized by gentler methods of persuasion, such as standard public relations techniques and one-sided presentation of an argument.
Black propaganda is identified as being from one source, but is in fact, from another. This is most commonly to disguise the true origins of the propaganda, be it from an enemy country or from an organization with a negative public image.
Gray propaganda is propaganda without any identifiable source or author. In scale, these different types of propaganda can also be defined by the potential of true and correct information to compete with the propaganda.
10 point checklist for analyzing propaganda:
- The ideology and purpose of the propaganda campaign,
- The context in which the campaign occurs (for example, history or the ideological and social milieu),
- Identification of the propagandist,
- The structure of the propaganda organization (for example, identifying the leadership, organizational goals, and the form of media utilized),
- The target audience,
- Media utilization techniques,
- Special techniques to maximize effect (which include creating resonance with the audience, establishing the credibility of the source, using opinion leaders, using face-to-face contact, drawing upon group norms, using rewards and punishment, employing visual symbols of power, language usage, music usage, and arousing emotions),
- Audience reaction to various techniques,
- Counter-propaganda (if present),
- Effects and evaluation.