SPEECH ACT FAMILIES (Searle)
Searle posits five illocutionary points: 1) Assertives: statements that may be judged true or false because they purport to describe a state of affairs in the world; 2) Directives: statements that attempt to make the auditorâs actions fit the propositional content; 3) Commissives: statements which commit the speaker to a course of action as described by the propositional content; 4) Expressives: statements that express the sincerity condition of the speech act; and 5) Declaratives: statements that attempt to change the world by representing it as having been changed (Mind 148-50).http://rhetorica.net/speech.htm
Pragmatics is the study of the way language is used. It is the study not of sentences, but of utterances: sentences (complete and incomplete) spoken by particular people in particular circumstances.
Observations about how language is used:
"Conversational maxims": Paul Grice
Maxim of Quantity
Maxim of Quality
Maxim of Relation (Maxim of Relevance)
Maxim of Manner
Cooperative Principle (Grice 1967/1989: 26-27)
Make your contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged.
1. Make your contribution as informative as is required (for the current purposes of the exchange).
2. Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.(parsimony)
Supermaxim: Try to make your contribution one that is true.
1. Do not say what you believe to be false.
2. Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.
Maxim of Relation
Supermaxim: Be perspicuous
1. Avoid obscurity of expression.
2. Avoid ambiguity.
3. Be brief (avoid unnecessary prolixity)
4. Be orderly